David Bacon | Special to Equal Voice News
LOS ANGELES — “I’m the people’s general,” says TC, explaining the nickname he’s been given on Fifth Street. He earned it by keeping the homeless residents of Los Angeles’ Skid Row informed and educated about neighborhood issues, in part through the literature table he maintains next to the blue tarps of his tent. Under the table are the donated clothes he collects, which anyone can take.
“I’m a soldier in the war on poverty,” the two-year resident of Skid Row declares. “I love the people – most of ’em, at least….Down here it can be hard. But sometimes it can be beautiful, too, because people are beautiful, no matter how down and out they may be.”
Despite TC’s nickname, Skid Row isn’t the scene of a military conflict. But this part of downtown L.A. remains contested terrain these days, as swanky boutiques and cafes have cropped up and touch a world without stable housing for thousands of people. Residential apartments for low-income residents still stand. For decades, Skid Row existed as a neighborhood in which trains arrived from other cities. Workers who needed to remain close to the city center called it home.
Starting around 1999, public policies that spurred development in Skid Row started. Buildings that were dubbed underused were transformed in the 50-block area. Well-heeled residents have moved in. In 2014, Skid Row’s streets have a vibrancy of sorts – one in which families, the homeless, the hip, the elderly and even well-treated dogs coexist in an ever-changing place.
The Haves and the Have-Nots
Deborah Burton, who lives in subsidized housing, describes people in the area – which has lofts selling for up to $1 million but few public places for homeless and low-income residents – as “The haves and the have-nots.”
On Sixth Street, people who might be viewed as the “have-nots” gather every day at Gladys Park, sharing a couple of drinking fountains, a few patches of grass and several trees. “People here accept you for who you are,” Linda Harris says.
She has lived on Skid Row for about a decade. She helped bring the users of Gladys Park together a few years ago to get the city to replace filthy water fountains and then found the resources to build tables for dominoes and board games. Young men now face off in 3-on-3 basketball under new hoops.
She is a survivor of cancer, which has left bumps all over her skin. No one gives her a second look, other than to say hello. “They don’t turn up their nose at you. Down here, everyone is equal,” she says.
That changes once Harris steps foot outside the park. “We’re not allowed in the upskirts of downtown,” she says. “Some of us aren’t permitted because of the way we look. People have a label on us. They talk about ‘those homeless people.’ They never say ‘the people.’ They see me as a person who eats out of a trash can.”
Harris, though, lives in an apartment. Burton feels the same scorn at Coles on Sixth Street. The restaurant was once affordable for her. These days, the more affluent people who have moved downtown sit at the restaurant’s sidewalk tables, while across the street, police tell the homeless that the city’s “sit-lie” ordinance prohibits them from sitting on the pavement.
“I tried going into Coles one day to eat, and the maître d’ asked me if I had any money before I even crossed the threshold,” Burton says.
The distinction between the haves and have-nots gets drawn in other ways. The farther east you go on Sixth Street, away from the new loft conversions, the fewer public trash cans there are. The grass in Gladys Park is brown, but, outside new market-rate residences, patches of bright green lawn dot the sidewalk, planted by the city to give the residents’ pets a place to “do their business.” Public bathrooms for people who actually live on the street are hard to find. To Skid Row’s poor, this is the “dirty divide.”
A Changing Landscape
That divide is felt in a park closer to downtown: With skyscrapers and luxury hotels a block or two away, Pershing Square is much less user-friendly than Gladys Park. Although the square is covered in concrete, there are no basketball courts. Benches line its rim, but metal dividers prevent anyone from lying down as they can at Gladys Park. Security guards quickly warn off anyone who tries.
Al Sabo arrived in Pershing Square in 2003, pulling two roller bags carrying his possessions after he was discharged from the hospital. “I had great jobs all my life and never thought I’d end up on the street,” the former journalist recalls. “I was terrified. I walked into the park that day, figuring that if any place was safe, it would be Pershing Square.”
Sabo found the benches filled with drug addicts – who ended up taking care of him. “They hustled me up food and found me a safe place to sleep for the next couple of months while I was on the street,” he explains.
Sabo believes that chasing the homeless out of Pershing Square was intended to make downtown more inviting and to help developers converting the old hotels to draw in more affluent residents.
He began helping others resist efforts to convert buildings into market-rate housing. He put his journalism skills to use, penning a newsletter column for Los Angeles Community Action Network (LA CAN), a grassroots advocacy group that works with poor and low-income people.
Los Angeles’ Skid Row is changing as developers convert residential hotels into market-rate apartments and cafes and businesses have opened. Displacement of the poor remains an issue. Photo by David Bacon for Equal Voice News (May 7, 2014)
Displacement of the poor in Los Angeles Skid Row remains an issue, as more middle-class people are moving into the neighborhood, with cafes and businesses. Photo by David Bacon for Equal Voice News (May 7, 2014)
A residential hotel is seen on Skid Row. Housing activists have prevented developers from converting it into high-rent apartments, displacing poor and low-income tenants. Photo by David Bacon for Equal Voice News (May 7, 2014)
On Los Angeles’ Skid Row, a homeless man rests. Nearby is a sign on personal belongings to let police know they are not abandoned. Photo by David Bacon for Equal Voice News (May 7, 2014)
In recent years, homeless, low-income residents and community groups have worked together in Los Angeles’ Skid Row to ensure that this downtown area has affordable housing. Photo by David Bacon for Equal Voice News (May 7, 2014)
Los Angeles’ Skid Row is close to downtown skyscrapers, and development in recent years has prompted efforts by community groups for housing for the homeless and low-income residents. Photo by David Bacon for Equal Voice News (May 7, 2014)
Visitors and some residents in Skid Row might not realize it but many rooftops have organic vegetable gardens to nourish low-income residents and the homeless. Bill Fisher and Thomas Ozeki care for the garden at the Star Apartments. Photo by David Bacon for Equal Voice News (May 7, 2014)
General TC, who calls himself “The People’s General,” lives on the sidewalk on Skid Row. He is an activist with the Los Angeles Community Action Network. Photo by David Bacon for Equal Voice News (May 7, 2014)
Leonard Woods lives in the Alexandria Hotel on Skid Row. He and a group of residents kept developers from displacing its poor tenants and redeveloping the single-room-occupancy residential hotel as more expensive lofts. Photo by David Bacon for Equal Voice News (May 7, 2014)
A police officer gives a ticket to a bike rider on Los Angeles’ Skid Row. Community activists accuse the police of harassing poor residents in order to force them out of the neighborhood, to make room for more upscale development. Photo by David Bacon for Equal Voice News (May 7, 2014)
Leonard Woods, living in the nearby Alexandria Hotel, became his ally. Like Sabo, he’d lost a good job and gravitated to the low rents downtown. The Alexandria in the 1920s had been a luxury residence for actors like Charlie Chaplin and Rudolf Valentino –Woods’s room had been occupied by Helen Ferguson, a silent film star – but, by the 1990s, the hotel was run down.
“I knew what I’d had, and what I’d come to. I didn’t let anyone know that I lived downtown because it was Skid Row,” Woods recalls. But when the hotel’s previous owner decided to renovate and began evicting low-income residents, his outlook changed: “I thought, ‘If he moves me out of my room, what makes me think I’m going to get it back?’”
Woods hired a lawyer, filed a suit with other residents and won an injunction – finally settled in early 2009 – protecting the hotel’s low-income status. In the process, Alexandria tenants got to know each other and became a community bent on staying put. “Now Skid Row is Skid Dollar,” says Woods, laughing. “Why can’t I still be here?”
At the Frontier Hotel, tenants won a partial victory in a similar battle. Zuma Corp., a developer, had converted the top three floors to market-rate residences, while Floors 3–9 remained low-income housing. The hotel owner reserved access to the main lobby, with its potted palms and marble floors, for top-floor renters who paid $1,100 to $3,900 a month. Poor tenants had to use a separate entrance around the corner, monitored by guards behind a metal gate and glass barrier.
Steve Diaz, whose family moved to the Frontier after being evicted from their apartment, remembers that poor residents won a temporary injunction against the owner, who then closed the affluent-only entry and gated off the elevator. “Afterwards they required that you show an ID and Social Security card or a room key to get in, and charged us $15 to get the key,” he says. “I was made to feel like a criminal coming into my own house. The LAPD even ran background checks against everyone in the building.”
As he, Sabo and other tenants organized similar committees in other hotels, they all began to develop a greater sense of themselves as a low-income community. That victory was one of several partial ones at the Frontier from about 2003 to 2008. Together, the tenants also succeeded in getting Los Angeles to pass a hotel preservation ordinance that requires no net loss of low-income housing, covering 17,000 to 18,000 units citywide. That includes about 8,000 downtown. The final ordinance gained approval in 2008.
Diaz, who now works for LA CAN, points out that at the Alexandria all the rooms are covered by Section 8, the federal government’s low-income rent subsidy program, and rents start at $56 a month. “And it’s across the street from a converted office building where the starting rent is 90 times higher,” he says.
People living on the street say that stabilizing low-income housing affects them as well because people move from one status to another. In 2013, Los Angeles had about 58,000 homeless people – about 8,000 more than in 2011 – including about 5,000 in the Skid Row area.
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